Migraines are a recurring type of headache. They cause moderate to severe pain that is throbbing or pulsing. The pain is often on one side of your head. You may also have other symptoms, such as nausea and weakness. You may be sensitive to light and sound.
Researchers believe that migraine has a genetic cause. There are also a number of factors that can trigger a migraine, including
About 12 percent of Americans get migraines. They can affect anyone, but you are more likely to have them if you
There are four different phases of migraines. You may not always go through every phase each time you have a migraine.
Migraines are more common in the morning; people often wake up with them. Some people have migraines at predictable times, such as before menstruation or on weekends following a stressful week of work.
There is no cure for migraines. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks.
There are different types of medicines to relieve symptoms. They include triptan drugs, ergotamine drugs, and pain relievers. The sooner you take the medicine, the more effective it is.
There are also other things you can do to feel better:
There are some lifestyle changes you can make to prevent migraines:
If you have frequent or severe migraines, you may need to take medicines to prevent further attacks. Talk with your health care provider about which drug would be right for you.
Certain natural treatments, such as riboflavin (vitamin B2) and coenzyme Q10, may help prevent migraines. If your magnesium level is low, you can try taking magnesium. There is also an herb, butterbur, which some people take to prevent migraines. But butterbur may not be safe for long-term use. Always check with your health care provider before taking any supplements.
Migraine is the most common cause of recurrent moderate to severe headache; 1-yr prevalence is 18% for women and 6% for men in the US. Migraine most commonly begins during puberty or young adulthood, waxing and waning in frequency and severity over the ensuing years; it often diminishes after age 50. Studies show familial aggregation of migraine.
Evidence based on evaluation of veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts suggests that migraine may frequently develop after mild traumatic brain injury.
Migraine is thought to be a neurovascular pain syndrome with altered central neuronal processing (activation of brain stem nuclei, cortical hyperexcitability, and spreading cortical depression) and involvement of the trigeminovascular system (triggering neuropeptide release, which causes painful inflammation in cranial vessels and the dura mater).
Many potential migraine triggers have been identified; they include the following:
Food triggers vary from person to person.
Fluctuating estrogen levels are a potent migraine trigger. Many women have onset of migraine at menarche, severe attacks during menstruation (menstrual migraine), and worsening during menopause. For most women, migraines remit during pregnancy (but sometimes they worsen during the 1st or 2nd trimester); they worsen after childbirth, when estrogen levels decrease rapidly.
Oral contraceptives and other hormone therapy occasionally trigger or worsen migraine and have been associated with stroke in women who have migraine with aura.
Familial hemiplegic migraine, a rare subtype of migraine, is associated with genetic defects on chromosomes 1, 2, and 19. The role of genes in the more common forms of migraine is under study.
Migraine is more than a headache. Associated symptoms such as nausea (and occasionally vomiting), photophobia, sonophobia, and osmophobia are prominent. Patients report difficulty concentrating during attacks. Routine physical activity usually aggravates migraine headache; this effect, plus the photophobia and sonophobia, encourages most patients to lie in a dark, quiet room during attacks. Severe attacks can be incapacitating, disrupting family and work life.
Attacks vary significantly in frequency and severity. Many patients have several types of headache, including milder attacks without nausea or photophobia; they may resemble tension-type headache but are a forme fruste of migraine.
Patients with episodic migraine can develop chronic migraine. These patients have headaches ≥ 15 days/mo. This headache disorder used to be called combination or mixed headache because it had features of migraine and tension-type headache. These headaches often develop in patients who overuse drugs for acute treatment of headaches.
Other, rare forms of migraine can cause other symptoms:
A migraine headache is caused by abnormal brain activity. This activity can be triggered by many things. But the exact chain of events remains unclear. Most medical experts believe the attack begins in the brain and involves nerve pathways and chemicals. The changes affect blood flow in the brain and surrounding tissues.
Migraine headaches tend to first appear between the ages of 10 and 45. Sometimes, they begin earlier or later. Migraines may run in families. Migraines occur more often in women than men. Some women, but not all, have fewer migraines when they are pregnant.
Migraine attacks may be triggered by any of the following:
Migraines can also be triggered by certain foods. Most common are:
True migraine headaches are not a result of a brain tumor or other serious medical problem. Only a health care provider who specializes in headaches can determine if your symptoms are due to a migraine or other condition.